外泌体miRNAs在癌症中的新兴功能和临床价值
外泌体是膜结合的细胞外囊泡的一个子集,直径范围为30至100 nm。外泌体包裹着各种分子,例如脂质,蛋白质和非编码RNA。在过去的几十年中,microRNA(miRNA)在癌症研究中引起了极大的关注,因为它们在癌症的发生和发展中起着重要的作用。越来越多的证据表明,肿瘤细胞不仅通过外泌体miRNA的分泌和转移,还与其他肿瘤细胞以及与存在于肿瘤微环境中的细胞进行通讯。更重要的是,发现外泌体miRNA可以作为信号分子来调节肿瘤的生长,血管生成,转移,对化学疗法的敏感性和免疫逃逸。外泌体miRNA的表达失调是癌变的早期事件,可能反映了癌症的恶性特征。由于体液中外泌体miRNA的广泛存在和高度稳定性,它们可能代表了癌症的一类新的非侵入性生物标志物。在这篇综述中,我们重点介绍了外泌体miRNA在癌症发病机理中的功能作用的最新进展。我们还讨论了穿梭穿梭的miRNA作为诊断和治疗癌症的生物标记物的潜在临床实用性。**
Emerging Function and Clinical Values of Exosomal MicroRNAs in Cancer
Exosomes are a subset of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm. Exosomes enclose a variety of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and non-coding RNAs. In the past decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted great attention in cancer research, as they play an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that tumor cells communicate with not only other tumor cells but also cells present in the tumor microenvironment via secretion and transfer of exosomal miRNAs. More importantly, exosomal miRNAs are found to serve as signaling molecules to regulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, sensitivity to chemotherapy, and immune evasion. Deregulated expression of exosomal miRNAs is an early event in carcinogenesis and may reflect the malignant characteristics of cancer. Owing to the wide existence and high stability of exosomal miRNAs in body fluids, they may represent a novel class of non-invasive biomarkers for cancer. In this review, we highlight the recent advances on the functional role of exosomal miRNAs in cancer pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential clinical utility of exosome-shuttled miRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
pmid: 31163321 Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 影响因子: 5.919 发表日期: 20190515 官网 免费下载
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