Proliferation requires that cells accumulate sufficient biomass to grow and divide. Cancer cells within tumors must acquire a variety of nutrients, and tumor growth slows or stops if necessary metabolites are not obtained in sufficient quantities. Importantly, the metabolic demands of cancer cells can be different from those of untransformed cells, and nutrient accessibility in tumors is different than in many normal tissues. Thus, cancer cell survival and proliferation may be limited by different metabolic factors than those that are necessary to maintain noncancerous cells. Understanding the variables that dictate which nutrients are critical to sustain tumor growth may identify vulnerabilities that could be used to treat cancer. This review examines the various cell-autonomous, local, and systemic factors that determine which nutrients are limiting for tumor growth.