Proteasome 26S subunit non-ATPase 4 (PSMD4) is an important proteasome ubiquitin receptor and plays a key role in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). However, the study of PSMD4 in esophageal cancer (EC) is relatively rare. Here, we found that the expression of PSMD4 was markedly enhanced in EC tissues and cell lines. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that overexpression of PSMD4 significantly enhanced Eca109 cell viability, while inhibition of PSMD4 reduced Eca109 cell viability. Knockdown of PSMD4 induced Eca109 cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. More importantly, knockdown of PSMD4 significantly enhanced the expression of glucose regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor 6, and p-protein kinase R-like ER kinase, indicating an enhanced ERS response in esophageal cancer cells. Compared with the control cells, brefeldin A significantly inhibited the expression of PSMD4 and increased the expression of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. However, such effects were largely reversed after overexpressing PSMD4 in Eca109 cells, suggesting that silencing PSMD4 could enhance ERS-induced cell apoptosis. In summary, upregulation of PSMD4 promoted the progression of esophageal cancer mainly by reducing ERS-induced cell apoptosis.