Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone, and ERBB2 receptors, has the worst prognosis of all breast cancers. It is difficult to treat owing to a lack of effective molecular targets. Here, we report that the growth of TNBC cells is exceptionally dependent on PICH, a DNA-dependent ATPase. Clinical samples analysis showed that PICH is highly expressed in TNBC compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, its high expression correlates with higher risk of distal metastasis and worse clinical outcomes. Further analysis revealed that PICH depletion selectively impairs the proliferation of TNBC cells, but not that of luminal breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of PICH in TNBC cells induces the formation of chromatin bridges and lagging chromosomes in anaphase, frequently resulting in micronucleation or binucleation, finally leading to mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. Collectively, our findings show the dependency of TNBC cells on PICH for faithful chromosome segregation and the clinical potential of PICH inhibition to improve treatment of patients with high-risk TNBC.