Objective: The objective was to systematically assess lung cancer risk prediction models by critical evaluation of methodology, transparency and validation in order to provide a direction for future model development. Methods: Electronic searches (including PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and other official cancer websites) were completed with English and Chinese databases until April 30th, 2018. Main reported sources were input data, assumptions and sensitivity analysis. Model validation was based on statements in the publications regarding internal validation, external validation and/or cross-validation. Results: Twenty-two studies (containing 11 multiple-use and 11 single-use models) were included. Original models were developed between 2003 and 2016. Most of these were from the United States. Multivariate logistic regression was widely used to identify a model. The minimum area under the curve for each model was 0.57 and the largest was 0.87. The smallest C statistic was 0.59 and the largest 0.85. Six studies were validated by external validation and three were cross-validated. In total, 2 models had a high risk of bias, 6 models reported the most used variables were age and smoking duration, and 5 models included family history of lung cancer. Conclusions: The prediction accuracy of the models was high overall, indicating that it is feasible to use models for high-risk population prediction. However, the process of model development and reporting is not optimal with a high risk of bias. This risk affects prediction accuracy, influencing the promotion and further development of the model. In view of this, model developers need to be more attentive to bias risk control and validity verification in the development of models.