Background and Purpose: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play a vital role in the progression of many cancers. Functional investigation of RBPs may contribute to elucidating the mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, and invasion, therefore providing novel insights into future diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Methods: We downloaded RNA sequencing data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) by UCSC Xena and identified relevant RBPs through an integrated bioinformatics analysis. We then analyzed biological processes of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by DAVID, and established their interaction networks and performed pathway analysis through the STRING database to uncover potential biological effects of these RBPs. We also explored the relationship between these RBPs and the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Results: In the present study, we obtained 1092 breast tumor samples and 113 normal controls. After data analysis, we identified 90 upregulated and 115 downregulated RBPs in breast cancer. GO and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in RNA processing, splicing, localization and RNA silencing, DNA transposition regulation and methylation, alkylation, mitochondrial gene expression, and transcription regulation. In addition, some RBPs were related to histone H3K27 methylation, estrogen response, inflammatory mediators, and translation regulation. Our study also identified five RBPs associated with breast cancer prognosis. Survival analysis found that overexpression of DCAF13, EZR, and MRPL13 showed worse survival, but overexpression of APOBEC3C and EIF4E3 showed better survival. Conclusion: In conclusion, we identified key RBPs of breast cancer through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. These RBPs were involved in a variety of biological and molecular pathways in breast cancer. Furthermore, we identified five RBPs as a potential prognostic biomarker of breast cancer. Our study provided novel insights to understand breast cancer at a molecular level.