Introduction: Thyroid cancer (TC) is an important common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence has increased in the past decades. The current TC diagnosis and classification tools are fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and histological examination following thyroidectomy. The metabolite profile alterations of thyroid cells (oncometabolites) can be considered for current TC diagnosis and management protocols. Methods: This systematic review focuses on metabolite alterations within the plasma, FNA specimens, and tissue of malignant TC contrary to benign, goiter, or healthy TC samples. A systematic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases was conducted, and the final 31 studies investigating metabolite biomarkers of TC were included. Results: A total of 15 targeted studies and 16 untargeted studies revealed several potential metabolite signatures of TC such as glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid and rhamnose, malonic acid and inosine, cholesterol and arachidonic acid, glycosylation (immunoglobulin G [IgG] Fc-glycosylation), outer mitochondrial membrane 20 (TOMM20), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), choline, choline derivatives, myo-/scyllo-inositol, lactate, fatty acids, several amino acids, cell membrane phospholipids, estrogen metabolites such as 16 alpha-OH E1/2-OH E1 and catechol estrogens (2-OH E1), and purine and pyrimidine metabolites, which were suggested as the TC oncometabolite. Conclusion: Citrate was suggested as the first most significant biomarker and lactate as the second one. Further research is needed to confirm these biomarkers as the TC diagnostic oncometabolite.